ICSE 12th Biology Tuition
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- To enable candidates to acquire the knowledge and to develop an understanding of biological terms, concepts, facts, principles, formulae, etc.
- To develop the ability to apply the knowledge of biology in unfamiliar situations.
- To develop experimental skills required in biology practical work.
- To create awareness about the problems of the environment and the manner in which these problems can be overcome.
- To develop the ability to appreciate biological phenomena in nature and the contribution of biology to human welfare.
- To develop interest in plants and animals and in their respective environments.
- To develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena.
- To create awareness of the fundamentals of human biology, food, health, nutrition and population control.
- Assignments every week
- 200+ MCQs
- Courseware prepared by experts
- Assessments to give you the level of improvement
There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three questions of 5 marks each.
|2||Genetics and Evolution||15|
|3||Biology and Human Welfare||14|
|4||Biotechnology and its Applications||10|
|5||Ecology and Environment||14|
(i) Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
(ii) Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes – apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony.
(iii) Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
(iv) Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
(i) Principles of inheritance and variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosomal theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex determination – in humans, fruit fly, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; mutation; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans; chromosomal disorders in humans.
(ii) Molecular basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
(i) Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (common cold, dengue, chikungunya, typhoid, pneumonia, amoebiasis, malaria, filariasis, ascariasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
(ii) Strategies for enhancement in food production
Improvement in food production: green revolution, plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, biofortification, apiculture and animalhusbandry.
(iii) Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilisers. Antibiotics.
(i) Biotechnology – Principles and processes
Genetic Engineering (recombinant DNA technology).
(ii) Biotechnology and its applications
Applications of biotechnology in health and agriculture: human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and biopatents.
(i) Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
(ii) Biodiversity and its Conservation
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
(iv) Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).